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Cathodic Protection and Earthing

Cathodic protection and earthing are two different topics belonging to the opposite sides of the spectrum. The implementation and principles are actually different. To simply illustrate what I mean, for cathodic protection, the potential of…

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Water Pipes as an Earthing Medium

The practice of earthing domestic electrical installation using metallic water pipes despite being included in electrical standards is a hazard which could cause possible injury, loss of life or damage to properties. Water pipelines do…

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Calculating Flash Protection Boundary Distances

In NFPA 70E, the short-circuit symmetrical ampacity from a bolted 3-phase fault at the transformer terminals is calculated with the following formula: where Isc = Amperes, V = Volts, %Z = transformer MVA. A typical…

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Arc-Flash Hazards

An arc-flash is a release of energy caused by a flow of fault current through an electrical arc plasma. Arc flashes can occur when racking a breaker in/out, removing a bolted panel, or even simple…

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