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merek merek wrote on March 14, 2017 at 12:46 AM:
Hello, sir!
I don't know how to modelling autotransformer in ETAP. It's possible to modelling autotransformer?
Thank you!
Admin Reply by: Ver Pangonilo
ETAP does not explicitly model auto-transformers.
Dipon Dasgupta Dipon Dasgupta wrote on March 7, 2017 at 11:02 AM:
I'm performing a coordination study on a distribution at my school. I'm not sure how to estimate or calculate the MVAsc or X/R ration of our utility. Please help if possible. Thank you.
Admin Reply by: Ver Pangonilo
The best method is to ask your utility about these parameters.
eng ah.ase eng ah.ase wrote on January 2, 2017 at 12:04 AM:
hi, my sir
iam from iraq electricls eng
i cant understanding the time and current
curve tripping i need pdf examples description prosiduer for the curve if you could help mi
i will be very glad from you and thank to you
Kenzo Simon Kenzo Simon wrote on December 17, 2016 at 11:49 AM:
It's been a long time sir. Gusto ko lang po malaman kung kamusta na kayo? I hope you remember me. It's about 22 years. Sana po wag niyo naman po baliwalain itong message ko sa inyo. Bilang anak ang tanging gusto ko lang naman ay makilala yung tunay kong ama. Napakaimportanteng tao niyo po sakin. Ikaw yung inspirasyon ko sa mga pag aaral ko, na sana isang araw kapag lumaki na ako't nagkatrabaho , hahanapin ko kayo. Sana po mabasa niyo po itong message ko. I am now a 3rd year college student taking up Bachelors Degree in Computer Network Administration. Hindi lang naman po ako simpleng tao eh. I was part of your past sir. I hope kialla niyo yung mama ko, Jacqueline Simon . She said that I can find you in the internet and this is it. I've finally found you. The first time I saw your picture talagang naramdaman ko na po. Luksong dugo kumbaga. Halos kamukang kamuka ko po kayo. Im happy to see you in the picture but yet I want to talk to you personally. Im now 22 years old. I think my age is enough to know this matter. Alam niyo, bilang anak na gustong gusto ko kayong makilala ng lubusan. Lalo na hindi ko kayo nakita man lang sa paglaki ko. I hope you will see this message. This is the only way to contact you personally. This is my email if ever you want to contact me, [email protected] .Mag iingat po kayo lagi. Thank you.
alex cruz alex cruz wrote on December 10, 2016 at 12:06 PM:
gud am sir ver
system voltage of utility is 13200V (L-L) primary, 400V(L-L)secondary, so may question is:
where i point my tap changer to come up to 400V system secondary?
can u give me sample how to bank 250kVA XF to attain my secondary voltage.
thank u
ARIEL PINEDA ARIEL PINEDA wrote on December 10, 2016 at 11:57 AM:
What is the relation of transformer percent impedance to its reactive power capability?
jerald reyes jerald reyes wrote on December 6, 2016 at 9:03 PM:
good day,,,i want to ask that,when we need to put a transformer a building?how much the load limit that we need to put a transformer?
peter marshall peter marshall wrote on October 30, 2016 at 7:07 PM:
where do i ind the regulations appertaining to solar and the grid as far as connection and fitting
Admin Reply by: Ver Pangonilo
It all depends on the location.

Across Europe, solar panels have to be certified to IEC safety standard IEC 61730 and performance standards IEC 61215 or IEC 61646.

Solar grid-tie inverters have to conform to IEC 62109.

In Germany, grid-tie inverters must have a VDE126 certification,
In the United Kingdom, grid tie inverters that produce fewer than 16 amps of peak power must have G83/1 certification, and larger inverters require the much more complicated G59/1 certification.

In the United States, solar panels, solar cables and inverters have to have UL certification. Solar panels must conform to the UL 1703 standard. Grid-tie inverters must conform to UL 1741 and solar cabling must conform to UL 4703 or UL 854 (USE-2). If you are using batteries in your design, the batteries must conform to either UL 1989, UL 2054, UL-SU 2580 or UL-SU 1973.

In Canada, solar panels must conform to safety standard ULC/ORD-C1703-1 and design standards CAN/CSA C61215-08 or CAN/CSA C61646-2, whilst gridtie inverters must conform to CSA C22.2 No. 107.1. Batteries must conform to CAN/CSA F382-M89 (R2004).

In Australia, solar panels must conform to AS/NZS5033, whilst grid-tie inverters must conform to AS4777. If you are planning a stand-alone system in a building, your system must also conform to AS4509. If you are planning a mobile system, for instance in a caravan or recreational vehicle, your system must conform to AS3001.
Sean Szeto Sean Szeto wrote on October 29, 2016 at 12:51 PM:

In the link above page 2, earth fault loop. at the bottom you mention is 81 metres. Zs / Z. But Z already have 25 metres. I think you are saying 81 times Z? which is 81 * 25 meters for maximum length?
Admin Reply by: Ver Pangonilo
The 81m is the maximum allowable length for a 2.5mm2 cable to ensure operation of the upstream protective device. Since 25m is shorter than 81m, the cable size is acceptable.
ARMANDO C. QUILANG JR. ARMANDO C. QUILANG JR. wrote on October 24, 2016 at 10:59 AM:
Hi Sir,

For Earthing Grid installation, NFPA 780 requires minimum of 460mm burial below grade. If the top surface of the massive pile cap concrete, 1200mm thick, is 600mm below grade level, is the installation of lateral earth grid conductor directly above the pile cap concrete allowed?. What Standards can I refer to?

Regards and hope to hear from you on my query.

Admin Reply by: Ver Pangonilo
It all depends on the location of your project. Local regulations / code of practices provide such information. At the end of the day, if you are not violating any statutory laws in your project locations, these details can be incorporated in your project specifications. Previous projects that I worked with was done in this manner as long as safety and physical damage to the installation/equipment are given utmost importance.
Armando C. Quilang Jr. Armando C. Quilang Jr. wrote on October 21, 2016 at 1:22 PM:
Hi Sir,
How can I check the reliability of GFCI/ELCB with a leakage current set at 30mA without the use of the test button?
Admin Reply by: Ver Pangonilo
Use a current injector for your purpose.
lard lard wrote on October 18, 2016 at 6:38 PM:
hi sir ver

im your avid fan in terms of electrical world. by the way sir, until now di ko maintindihan kung paano ung bank ng transformer kapag 400V system.
Admin Reply by: Ver Pangonilo
400V system is not different from 440V or 480V system. Connection is still the same.
AHMED NAZHAT AHMED NAZHAT wrote on October 12, 2016 at 4:21 AM:
Dear Ver

i'm trying to apply MVA method to a very simple circuit located in the following url:

can you plz check if his way is correct since he uses mtor MVA same as the MVA for short circuit which is different from using the rated MVA as you have indicated in your article. in etap i tried to follow you method but i cant get it, etap gives 94%. please help. thank you
Admin Reply by: Ver Pangonilo
For a motor with rating already in MVA with per unit reactance known, the calculation provided in said website is correct.

In the calculation I have provided in my example, the motors are lumped.
saadoune saadoune wrote on October 6, 2016 at 7:09 PM:
Good morning Sir,

I want just to know, how we protect personel from indirect contact in a TNS system if the main circuit breaker in a distribution panel is a 03 pole circuit breaker?
Samuel Samuel wrote on August 2, 2016 at 4:57 PM:
Hi Sir,
Is there any Philippine standard as to what should be the rating of electrical plugs on devices?
Admin Reply by: Ver Pangonilo
Check this:
PNS 1572 - Plug and socket-outlets for domestic and similar general use. This is the same version as the IEC 83:1975 (
Paul Paul wrote on July 26, 2016 at 4:19 AM:
Please Sir VER Pangonilo, I have 30,000 Watt Transformer with 220 VAC 3 Phase input to 220 VAC 3 phase output Isolation transformer, I not understand how to size the breaker so it will not occassionaly trip on power fail/restore some times when the power restores the breakertrips, currently it's a 250 amp breaker. - Thanks
Admin Reply by: Ver Pangonilo
A 30,000 watt 3-phase transformer assuming that it is at unity power factor has a full load primary current of 78.7 A or about 98.4 A at 80% PF. If your 250 A breaker is tripping, that is already 5 times the full load current of your transformer. You can do the following:
1) Check your loads when the breaker is tripping. Are you starting a motor load? Or any load that has a high in-rush current?
2). Check the trip setting of your circuit breaker.
3) Hire a competent electrician to do the work for you.

Replacing the circuit breaker with a higher rating is not an option unless there is an audit on your electrical system to determine that cable sizes are suitable for the new size of your circuit breaker.

If you can add more information, I may be able to help you better
Glenn Glenn wrote on April 9, 2016 at 4:59 PM:
Good day sir,

Familiar po ba kayo sa ANZSCO skill levels in australia and New zealand? since you are registered professional engineer in australia. ano po ba ang mga qualifications? Thanks and God Bless
Admin Reply by: Ver Pangonilo
Sorry, I am not familiar with ANZCO. My qualifications was assessed through Engineers Australia ( Check their website for details.
Glenn Glenn wrote on April 9, 2016 at 9:43 AM:
Good day sir,

pamilyar po ba kayo sa ANZSCO-Skill levels dyan sa Australia?. Thanks po and God Bless
Noel Noel wrote on April 5, 2016 at 11:36 AM:
Good day sir,isa po akung Assistant Electrician sa cruise ship.gusto ko rin po maging Master Electrician.may suggest po ba kayo na review center o PEC 2009 na nka pdf?thank you sir.
Admin Reply by: Ver Pangonilo
Hi Noel,
Matagal na akong wala sa Pinas, di ko na alam ang kalakalan sa mga review centers.
Meantime, try this [] . Keep in touch, I may be able to help one way or another.
Rumesh Nanda Rumesh Nanda wrote on March 14, 2016 at 3:06 PM:
As per IEC 60445 clause can I use only black color code cable for three phase system.
Kindly suggest.
Admin Reply by: Ver Pangonilo
Please clarify if you are referring to the outer sheath or conductor color?


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