Design

Rotating-machine Reactance Multipliers

The momentary or first cycle current is used to evaluate the closing or latching of the high voltage circuit breaker. Other selection criteria are the interrupting and symmetrical short circuit currents. The sub-transient reactance of…

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Advantages of Per Unit and Percent Calculations

Power System analysis software are very expensive beyond the reach of small and medium enterprises. The only option, when fault analysis is required, is to perform calculations manually using available resources such calculators or desktop…


Safety Against Overvoltages

Overvoltages are unwanted potentials occurring in electrical systems between a phase conductor and the earth or ground, or between phase conductors having a peak value greater than the peak of the largest nominal or RMS…


Motor Protection -Direct Temperature Sensing

The service life of electric motors is dependent on two (2) main components: Electrical components (i.e. windings & insulations); Mechanical components (i.e. core, shaft, bearings, frame and cooling system). The most common causes of electric…


Objectives of Grounding System

To ground or not to ground is a decision that an Electrical Engineer needs to make when planning or modifying an electrical power distribution system. The decision is dependent on the requirement of the loads….


IEC 60909 vs ANSI/IEEE 141 Short-Circuit Current Calculations

Short-circuit calculation is one of the most important work to be undertaken in plant power distribution. A comprehensive, detailed and accurate short-circuit currents will be used in switchgear selection, protection settings and coordination. Traditional short-circuit…


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