Design

Advantages of Per Unit and Percent Calculations

Power System analysis software are very expensive beyond the reach of small and medium enterprises. The only option, when fault analysis is required, is to perform calculations manually using available resources such calculators or desktop…

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Motor Protection -Direct Temperature Sensing

The service life of electric motors is dependent on two (2) main components: Electrical components (i.e. windings & insulations); Mechanical components (i.e. core, shaft, bearings, frame and cooling system). The most common causes of electric…


Objectives of Grounding System

To ground or not to ground is a decision that an Electrical Engineer needs to make when planning or modifying an electrical power distribution system. The decision is dependent on the requirement of the loads….


IEC 60909 vs ANSI/IEEE 141 Short-Circuit Current Calculations

Short-circuit calculation is one of the most important work to be undertaken in plant power distribution. A comprehensive, detailed and accurate short-circuit currents will be used in switchgear selection, protection settings and coordination. Traditional short-circuit…


PEC – Is Voltage Drop Calculation Required?

There are provisions in the Philippine Electrical Code stating the maximum voltage drop for branch circuits and feeders. Philippine Electrical Code Part 1/Chapter 2. Wiring and Protection/Article 2.10 – Branch Circuits FPN No. 4: Conductors…


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