Presently, carbon-based energy sources are utilized to a large extent, however, renewable sources of energy are slowly gaining importance due to concerns about climate change and environmental sustainability. Despite the current low prices of fossil fuel, renewable energy sources development is gaining momentum due to the initiative of world leader to reduce carbon emissions. At the moment, the investment cost of renewable energy is still higher compared to carbon-based energy per unit of generated energy. Inefficiencies of current technologies is also a factor to the higher cost of renewable energy.
Renewable energy can be derived from natural sources that replenish themselves over some periods of time. These natural sources include the sun, wind, water movement, organic plant and biomass and geothermal. The present technology of most renewable energy sources are not suitable to supply large base loads particularly solar and wind due to energy storage requirements.