Articles by Ver Pangonilo

Arc Flash Incident – 13.8 kV Indoor Switchgear

An indoor 13.8kV Vacuum Circuit Breaker switchgear has an arc flash incident this week. Investigation results showed that the wet weather increased the humidity inside the switchroom, incomplete covering of bus bar joints (as-built condition),…


Motor Protection -Direct Temperature Sensing

The service life of electric motors is dependent on two (2) main components: Electrical components (i.e. windings & insulations); Mechanical components (i.e. core, shaft, bearings, frame and cooling system). The most common causes of electric…


Objectives of Grounding System

To ground or not to ground is a decision that an Electrical Engineer needs to make when planning or modifying an electrical power distribution system. The decision is dependent on the requirement of the loads….


Grounding and Bonding Permitted Methods

Grounding is one of the most taken for granted provision of the Philippine Electrical Code. The incompetence of Electrical Inspectors make this practice worst. I inspected the grounding system of a 13.8kV Ring Main Unit…


IEC 60909 vs ANSI/IEEE 141 Short-Circuit Current Calculations

Short-circuit calculation is one of the most important work to be undertaken in plant power distribution. A comprehensive, detailed and accurate short-circuit currents will be used in switchgear selection, protection settings and coordination. Traditional short-circuit…


Senior High School – Is it Effective?

In 2010, I have already talked about Re-engineering the Philippine Educational System which has led to the creation of the curriculum for Senior High Schools. After a couple of years of Senior High School and…


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