Articles by Ver Pangonilo

Protection of the Neutral Conductor

Overload detection shall be provided for the neutral conductor in a multi-phase circuit Where the cross-sectional area of the neutral conductor is less than that of the line conductors. The overcurrent detection for the neutral…



Arc Flash – Hazard and System Grounding

IEEE 1584 Guide Equation for calculation of incident energy has a factor K2 for system grounding. It is zero for ungrounded and high or low resistance grounded systems and −0.113 for the solidly grounded (earthed)…


Arc Flash – Simplified Two-Category Clothing

The 2015 edition of NFPA 70E has a simplified approach to provide minimum PPE for electrical workers within facilities with large and diverse electrical systems. The simplified clothing categogies listed in NFPA 70E 2015 Table…


Arc Flash – Incident Energy at Working Distance

From the previous article, the arcing current Ia was calculated from the bolted fault current. With the arcing current already known, the incident energy can then be calculated. To determine the incident energy using the…


Arc Flash – Calculating Arcing Current

Arcing current is used to calculate the incident energy from an arc flash. The predicted three-phase arcing current, which is lower than the bolt fault current, must be determined so that operating time for protective…


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