April 2017

Arc Flash – Incident Energy at Working Distance

From the previous article, the arcing current Ia was calculated from the bolted fault current. With the arcing current already known, the incident energy can then be calculated. To determine the incident energy using the…


Arc Flash – Calculating Arcing Current

Arcing current is used to calculate the incident energy from an arc flash. The predicted three-phase arcing current, which is lower than the bolt fault current, must be determined so that operating time for protective…



Philippine Electrical Code – Scope

The Philippine Electrical Code has two (2) parts. The scope of PEC 1 is defined in Section 1.0.1.2(a) while Philippine Electrical Code 2 (PEC 2), Section 1.1.2(b) states The PEC 2 covers utility facilities and…


Philippine Electrical Code – Low Voltage

Low Voltage is mentioned many times in the Philippine Electrical Code (PEC). However, the PEC failed to explicitly include Low Voltage in the definition of terms. The purpose of the PEC, being a statutory document,…


Philippine Electrical Code

Spaces About Electrical Equipment – Working Spaces

One of the most taken for granted provision of the Philippine Electrical Code is Section 1.10.2.1 Spaces About Electrical Equipment. It may have been that Electrical Design Engineers and Electrical Inspectors are not aware of…


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